Stem cells are the foundation of development in plants, animals and humans. In humans, there are many different types of stem cells that come from different places in the body or are formed at different times in our lives. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. These include embryonic stem cells that exist only at the earliest stages of development and various types of tissue-specific (or adult) stem cells that appear during fetal development and remain in our bodies throughout life. Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies but embryonic stem cells have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.
Stem cells research involves many biotechnology applications, such as the study of stem cell genetics, biological factors, receptors on the stem cells and stem cell physiology. Stem cells are the other one of our main research and application to help human health. Scientists are using genetic modification to expand the potential therapeutic applications of stem cells. Stem cells can be modified to produce enzymes or factors, such as insulin, before being transplanted into the body. Stem cells can also be modified to resist certain infections.